Who Invented The Abacus?
When someone hears the word abacus, they typically think of it as being a rudimentary way of counting and that no one ever uses one of those anymore. You would be shocked to find out that in some countries, like Asia and Africa, have clerks and traders that still use the abacus. These clerks and traders even have a special name for using the abacus, they are known as abacist. Read on to learn more about the inventors of the abacus.
Somewhere, between 2700-2300 BC, the appearance of the first Sumerian abacus. This abacus was a table that had successive columns. It bordered the consecutive orders of amount of their sexagesimal number system. It is thought that the abacus was used for subtraction and addition, however the abacus was too archaic to use for anything of more complexity.
The oldest abacus to be found dates back to 300 BC. It was found on the Greek island Salamis around the mid 1840s. The table is made of white marble and has several lines and markings across the top. The size of it is almost 5 feet long, 2 and half feet wide and 2 inches thick.
The Roman abacus was used up until the 11th century. They were smooth tables that one would slide counters and later calculi across. They were marked with the Roman numeral system. Small groups would represent ones while others would be fives, tens and so on. This type of counter casting system lasted till the late Roman Empire. It was also used in medieval Europe. Pope Sylvester II’s modifications helped to gain the abacus new popularity in 11th century Europe.
The oldest known Chinese abacus date back to the 2nd century BC, it was constructed differently than the abacus. It was typically eight inches tall, the length varied though, depending on who the operator was, however they typically had more than seven rods. They had an upper and lower deck. The top deck had 2 beads on each rod, typically made of hard wood, and the bottom deck would consist of five beads on each rod. They were used for more than just addition and subtraction. The users could also multiply, divide and figure out square and cube roots!